2015年10月24日 星期六

Munich.3 The Residenz: Treasury & Antiquarium (慕尼黑3: 王宮: 寶藏廳與古董廳)

This is the Bavarian State Theatre, about 15 minutes on foot far from Marienplatz. It forms part of the complex called the Residenz first built in 1508 but added to by successive  kings and which served as the seat of royal administration until 1918. Not many know that it was Ludwig II, who sponsored the buidling of the  Bayreuth Festspielhaus or Bayreuth Festival Theatre specially for Richard Wagner who wanted to combine art, music and drama into one combined art form  which he called Gesamtkunstwerk (or total work of art), a project supported by Friedrich Nietzsche before he fell out with his idol upon the opening of Wagner's inaugural production there, the first part of the Der Ring des Niebelungen (The Ring of the Niebelung) for which Wagner wrote not only the music but also its libretto. The Germans love the music and opera. This is where the music lovers of Munich flock to.. This is the base of the Bayerische Staatsoper ( Bavarian State Opera)  first established in 1653 and has had as its directors such illustrious conductors as Wolgang Sawallisch (1971-1992), Peter Schnieder (1992-1998), Zubin Mehta (1998-2006), Kent Nagano (2006-2013) and thereafter Kirill Petrenko whose appointment  was just confirmed earlier this month to be extended to 2021.In 1875 the Munich Opera Festival took place for the first time. It is  now one of the most important opera festivals worldwide.

A monument to Max Joseph or Maximilian IV, (1856- 1825) as Prince-Elector of Bavaria or Maximilian I (as King of Bavaria) erected since 1818, at the centre of the Max Joseph Platz, when the National Theatre of Bavaria Building was opened but was not revealed after his death in 1835 because he resolutely refused to be portrayed sitting down instead of standing up.

This is the courtyard outside the entrance to the Treasury and the Palace Museums

Picture: Ground plan

This is the ground plan of the The Residenz complex, open to the public since 1925. it houses a number of museums which contain important collections of bronze sculptures, paintings, tapestries, porcelains, silvers, miniatures, rare furniture, clocks etc amassed by the ruling Wittelsbach family over the centuries and its architectural style ranges from Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo to Neo-Classical.   It is now divided broadly into the  Treasury, the Cuvilliés-Theater, the Könisbau Court and the Allerheiligen-Hofkirche. It was heavily bombed during WWII but was gradually repaired and rebuilt from 1945 on.

The crown of an English queen c. 1370-80 previously owned by the Plantagenet King Richard II

The above are some of the Crowns on display at the Treasury.

Crown of the Queen of Bavaria,  made 1806/07 in Paris

This is the cross of Gisèle of Hungary, made to her order in honor of her mother Gisèle of Burgundy (d 1066) and made shortly about 1067: an excellent example of Ottonian art or pre-romanesque German art , the Ottonians being the kings ruling Germany and northern Italy from 951-1024). It's made of oak covered in gold and pearls, 200 pieces of enamels and other precious stones and Gisèle and her mother are represented as tiny figures at the feet of Jesus whilst figures of the 4 evangelists appear at its back.

This is an ostrich egg.

An example of miniature carved Flemish lockets made at around 1500 depicting a religious subject 


Another example of such miniature locket

A crystal bowl

Statuette of St. George as a knight in jewelled enamel dating from c 1597 with its plinth made around 1640. The visor conceals an image of Duke Wilhem V.

An miniature altar to the Holy Mother with infant Jesus

an elaborately carved altar with two foldable doors at its side

At the bottom, Adam and Eve at the paradise in front of the forbidden fruit

An ivory carving 

crystal plates and jar

plate and jug in blue and gold

Ceremonial goblet 

Goddess Diana with a deer made in Augsburg around 1600

Middle Eastern plates and jars

 Painted porcelain plate

A violin made with turtle shell !

 gilded cherry good ornament with a stone mask


miniature stone carving of a man panther skin over his head

stone carving with two kinds of stone skilfully blended together 

another one

 A lady looking at herself in a mirror: an ancient custom which seems to defy time.

The Residenz consisted originally only of the Neuveste, a fortress in the northeast of present day Munich and was gradually expanded by successive rulers. The Antequarium was built under Duke Albrecht V (reg. 1550-1579) but it was Maximilian I (reg. 1598-1651) and after 1623 as the Elector who expanded it most but it was King Ludwig I who (reg. 1825-1848) who oversaw the final phase of the expansion of the Residenz, adding the King's Tract and the Banquet Hall building. it has some 130 different rooms. So it was quite a hassle and extremely tiring just to go quickly through them.

I could only gape with my mouth wide open at the intricacy of the shell-laying work outside of the Antiquarium, the work of Friedrich Sustris (1540-1600), who trained under Vasari in Florence, a contemporary of Tintoretto and El Greco, showing Mercury, the messenger of the gods, leaping out of the grotto.

One of the statues at a niche

The wall decorations: shells, shells, and just shells

Even the door is inlaid with shells!

The Antiquarium originally built by Albrecht V between 1550-1579 as the exhibition room for his collection of antique sculptures, supplemented by works from the 16th to 18th centuries: with its painted ceiling and arches all, each with a niche enscounced with marble sculptures between each two columns, is the largest Renaissance style hall north of the Alps.  But under Duke Wilhem V (reg. 1579-1598), it was turned into a ceremonial hall and around 1600, Maximilian I (1598-1651) had the chimney breast and end wall remodeled

The 16 pictures at the top of the vault by the Munich court painter Peter Candid  are  allegories of Fame and Virtue in the form of seated female figures . Other paintings on the jambs depicting various scenes the town, markets and gardens of Munich were done by Antonio Ponzano, and Hans Thonauer the Elder. 


The statues on the niches

The busts of various Roman Emperors

Details of the windows and arches

The end wall as remodelled by Maximilian I: below it is a raised dais, where the King would dine on ceremonial occasions. Beneath and between the arches are hollows which served as sideboard. In the centre is the coat of arms of the Wittelsbach family, surrounded by the busts of its kings.

The exit to the hall

A sculpture below the exit staircase.